Thursday, December 3, 2009

Throughout the History of Kutai Sultanate

Judging from the ancient history of Indonesia, Kutai is the oldest kingdom in Indonesia. This is evidenced by the discovery of 7 pieces written inscription above yupa (stone monument) which was written in Sanskrit by using letters Pallawa. Based on paleografinya, the text dated from the 5th century AD.

From the inscriptions it can be discovered the existence of a kingdom under the leadership of the King Mulawarman, son of King Aswawarman, grandson of Maharaja Kudungga. Kingdom is governed by this Mulawarman named Martadipura Kutai, located across town Muara Kaman.

In the early 13th century, there stood a new kingdom in Tepian Stone or Kutai Lama named Kingdom Kukar with the first king, Aji Batara Agung Dewa Sakti (1300-1325).

With the two kingdoms in the Mahakam River area is certainly cause friction between the two. In the 16th century there was a war between the two kingdoms of this Kutai. Kukar kingdom under the king, Prince Aji Sinum Bannerman finally conquered Mendapa Kutai Martadipura. The king then called the kingdom into the kingdom Kukar Martadipura Ing.

In the 17th century Islam has been well received by the Kingdom Kukar. Furthermore many Islamic names are finally used in the names of the king and the royal family Kukar. The title was replaced by the king with the title Sultan. Sultan who first used the name of Islam is the Sultan Aji Muhammad Idris (1735-1778).

In 1732, the capital of the Kingdom Kukar moved from Kutai Lama Pemarangan.
Displacement Kukar capital of the Kingdom of Kutai Lama (1300-1732) to Pemarangan (1732-1782) later moved to Tenggarong (1782-present).

Sultan Aji Muhammad Idris, who is the daughter of the Sultan Wajo go to the ground Lamaddukelleng Wajo, South Sulawesi to take part in fighting against the Company with the Bugis people. Government of Kutai Kartanegara temporarily held by the Trustee Council.

In the year 1739, Sultan A.M. Idris was killed on the battlefield. After the death of Sultan Idris, there was the struggle for the throne by Aji Kado. Aji royal crown prince who then Imbut little later rushed to Wajo. Gift Aji later inaugurated his name as Sultan Kukar by using the title of Sultan Aji Muhammad Aliyeddin.

As an adult, Aji Imbut as the Shah's crown prince of the Empire Kukar Kutai back to the ground. By the Bugis and courtiers loyal to the late Sultan Idris, Aji Imbut Sultan was crowned with the title Kukar Sultan Aji Muhammad Muslihuddin. Muslihuddin Sultan coronation was held at Mangkujenang (Samarinda Seberang). Since it began the fight against Aji Kado.

Resistance took place with a strict embargo strategy by Mangkujenang against Pemarangan. Sulu pirate fleet was involved in this resistance by attacking and hijacking against Pemarangan. In 1778, Aji VOC Gift for help but can not be met.

In the year 1780, Aji Imbut successfully recapture the capital and Pemarangan officially crowned as the sultan with the title of Sultan Aji Muhammad in court Muslihuddin Kukar Sultanate. Gift Aji executed and buried on the island of Jembayan.

Imbut Aji Aji Mohammed Sultan Muslihuddin moved the capital of Kutai Kartanegara to Tepian Pandan on September 28, 1782. The move was done to eliminate the influence of the bitter memories of the reign and the Kado Aji Pemarangan deemed to have lost tuahnya. Pandan Tepian name later changed into a means tourist Appliances House King, over time more popular tourist Appliances called Tenggarong and survive until now.

In the year 1838, Kukar Empire led by Sultan Aji Muhammad Aji Imbut Salehuddin after his death that year.

In 1844, merchant ships 2 James Erskine Murray's leadership of British waters entering Tenggarong. Murray came to the Kutai and ask to trade the land to establish a trade post and the exclusive rights to run the steamer in the waters of the Mahakam. But Sultan A.M. Salehuddin allow Murray to trade only in Samarinda region alone. Murray is not satisfied with the offer of this Sultan. After a few days in the waters Tenggarong, Murray fired a cannon towards the palace and returned by the troops Kutai kingdom. The battle was inevitable. Murray led the fleet was defeated and fled toward the open sea. Five people were injured and three people died from the fleet Murray, and Murray himself, were among those killed.

Tenggarong incident in this battle to the British side. England actually going to do a counterattack against Kutai, but taken by the Dutch that the Kutai is one part of the Dutch East Indies and the Netherlands will solve these problems in his own way. Then the Dutch sent a fleet under the command t'Hooft with a full arsenal. Arriving in Tenggarong, t'Hooft fleet attacked the palace of Sultan Kutai. Sultan A.M. Salehuddin evacuated to the town Wake up. Kutai royal warlord, Awang Long title of Prince Senopati with his troops fought valiantly against the fleet to maintain the honor t'Hooft Kukar Kingdom. Awang Long died in battle are less balanced and Kukar Empire was defeated and surrendered in the Netherlands.

On October 11, 1844, Sultan A.M. Salehuddin must sign an agreement with the Dutch, who claimed that the Sultan recognized the Dutch East Indies government and obey the Dutch East Indies government in Borneo, represented by a resident who is domiciled in Banjarmasin.

Year 1846, H. von Dewall become civil administrator of the first Dutch on the east coast of Borneo. In 1850, Sultan A.M. Solomon held the reins of leadership of Kutai Kartanegara Ing Martadipura.

In 1853, Dutch East Indies government puts J. Zwager as a Resident Assistant in Samarinda. At the time of political and economic power is still in the hands of Sultan PM Solomon (1850-1899).

In 1863, the kingdom back Kukar agreement with the Dutch. In the treaty was agreed that the Kingdom Kukar become part of the Government of the Netherlands East Indies.

Year 1888, the first coal mines opened in the Kutai Stone Panggal by mining engineer from the Netherlands, JH Menten. Menten also laid the foundation for the first oil exploitation in the Kutai region. Kutai region's prosperity seems more real even making Kukar Sultanate became very popular in those days. Pengeksloitasian royalties on natural resources in Kutai given to Sultan Sulaiman.

In 1899, Sultan Suleiman the son dies and is succeeded by his crown Aji Mohammed Sultan Aji Muhammad Alimuddin.

In 1907, the first Catholic mission was established in Laham. A year later, the upper Mahakam region was submitted to the Netherlands with compensation for 12,990 Gulden per year to the Sultan of Kutai Kartanegara.

Sultan Alimuddin reigns only over a period of 11 years, he died in 1910. Because at that time Aji crown prince was still immature Startled, Sultanate rule Kukar then held by the Trusteeship Council, led by Prince Aji Mangkunegoro.

On November 14, 1920, was named Aji Shocked Kukar Sultan with the title of Sultan Aji Muhammad Parikshit.

Since the early 20th century, Kutai economy grew very rapidly as a result of incorporation of Borneo-Sumatra Trade Co.. In those years, the capital of Kutai gained steadily grown through the surplus generated each year. Until the year 1924, Kutai has a fund of 3,280,000 Gulden - a fantastic amount for that period.

In 1936, Sultan A.M. Parikshit build a magnificent new palace and made of solid concrete materials. Within one year, the palace was completed.

When the Japanese occupied the area of Kutai in 1942, the Sultan of Kutai must comply with the Tenno Heika, Emperor of Japan. Japan gave the Sultan an honorary degree by the name of the royal Koo Kooti.

Indonesian independence in 1945. Two years later, the Sultanate Kukar status entered into the Autonomous Region Federation of East Kalimantan together other areas such as the Sultanate of Bulungan, Sambaliung, and Sand Mountain Tabur by forming the Council of the Sultanate. Then on December 27, 1949 in the United States of Indonesia.

Autonomous Region Kutai changed into the Special Region of Kutai, which is an autonomous region / district-level special areas under the Emergency Act No.3 Th.1953.

In 1959, under Law No. 27 Year 1959 on "Areas Establishment Level II in Borneo", the area of Kutai Special Region is split into 3 Regional Level II, namely:
1. Second Level Region with the capital Tenggarong Kutai
2. The township's capital of Balikpapan Balikpapan
3. Township with capital Samarinda Samarinda

On January 20, 1960, located in the Governorates in Samarinda, APT Pranoto who served as governor of East Kalimantan, with the name of the Minister of Home Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia inaugurated the 3rd and took an oath to the three regional heads the autonomous regions, namely:
1. A.R. Regent Padmo as Level II Regional Head Kutai
2. Capt.. Soedjono as the Municipal Mayor of Samarinda
3. A.R. Sayid Mohammad as the Municipal Mayor of Balikpapan

A day later, on January 21, 1960 held at the Sultan Palace Hall of Kutai, Tenggarong Parliament Special Session Special Region Kutai. The core of this event is the handover of government from the Head Chief of the Special Region of Kutai, Sultan Aji Muhammad Raden Aji Parikshit to Padmo as Head of the Provincial Regent II Kutai, Captain Soedjono (Mayor Samarinda) and AR Sayid Mohammad (Mayor of Balikpapan). Government of Kutai Kartanegara under Sultan Aji Muhammad Parikshit ended, and he was living a commoner.

In 1999, Kukar Regent Drs. H. Syaukani HR, MM intends to revive the Sultanate Martadipura Kukar ing. The return of Kutai was not with the intention to revive feudalism in the region, but as an effort to preserve cultural heritage and history as a kingdom of Kutai in Indonesia's oldest. In addition, the Sultanate dihidupkannya Kukar tradition is to support the tourism sector of East Kalimantan in an effort to attract tourists and foreign tourists.

On 7 November 2000, Regent Kukar with Crown Kutai H. Prince Aji Praboe Adiningrat Soerja Anoem facing President Abdurrahman Wahid at the Bina Graha Jakarta to convey the above purpose. President Wahid agreed and approved the return of Kutai Kartanegara to the descendants of Sultan Kutai crown prince H. Prince Aji Praboe.

On September 22, 2001, Crown Prince of Kutai Kartanegara, H. Prince Aji Praboe Adiningrat Soerya Anoem crowned Emperor with the title Kukar Sultan H. Aji Muhammad Salehuddin II. Coronation H.A.P. Praboe as the new Sultan Kukar held on September 22, 2001.

Source: http://www.kutaikartanegara.com/








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